Working as a developer sometimes requires more knowledge than just that of programming itself. It’s always a good idea to grasp some concepts from other IT fields as well.

One of these concepts is file system permissions, proper management of which is a must when it comes to working with files, e.g., using node.js fs module.

I won’t write what exactly 777 or r/w/x mean, as it’s a very broad topic, but I’ll try to show how we can use those concepts in the node.js world.

Where may it come in handy? Definitely when we want to create new folders or files and be sure that only certain people have access to them. Let’s take a look at signatures of some fs module functions.

fs.mkdir(path[, mode], callback);
fs.writeFile(filename, data[, options], callback);

In both cases, we’re able to set something called mode, where for mkdir, it’s passed as an argument, and for writeFile, it’s one of the options object attributes.

Getting mode may be slightly overwhelming at first if you’ve never worked with it, but I’ll explain every part separately.

var mode = 0777 & ~process.umask();
  • when you prefix a number with 0, it becomes an octal (8 based) representation, e.g. 12 decimal becomes 14 octal because 1*(8^1) + 4*(8^0) = 12
  • process.umask() returns decimal representation, which is dependent on the node process we’re running (with what permissions it has been run)
  • ~ inverts all bits in the binary representation of the number, e.g. 0001 becomes 1110. For decimals, ~ returns -(x + 1), so ~5 returns -6
  • & takes only those bits that are both 1 in the same positions – binary AND operator

And to make everything even more clear, let’s write one quick example using real numbers, keeping in mind that first 0 is only telling JS to treat the number as an octal representation.

Initial mode:                   0777(8) = 111111111(2) // user r/w/x, group r/w/x, other r/w/x
Process mask:                    022(8) = 000010010(2)
Reversed process mask:          0755(8) = 111101101(2) // user r/w/x, group r/x,   other r/x
Initial mode AND reversed mask: 0755(8) = 111101101(2) // user r/w/x, group r/x,   other r/x

If AND operation return exactly the same result as the reversed process mask itself. Why don’t we just return the mask, you may ask? Because this way we can restrict default permissions. Let me show you this in the second example.

Initial mode: 0666(8) = 110110110(2) // user r/w,   group r/w, other r/w
Process mask: 022(8) = 000010010(2)
Reversed process mask: 0755(8) = 111101101(2) // user r/w/x, group r/x, other r/x
Initial mode AND reversed mask: 0644(8) = 110100100(2) // user r/w,   group r,   other r

Here we’ve got 0664 instead of 0755 as our mode. Why is that?

  • We’ve asked for r/w permissions for everyone
  • Process has r/w/x for user and r/x for group and other
  • Process allows us to use read permissions that we asked for
  • Process disallows us to use write permissions as process itself doesn’t have them
  • Process has one additional permission which is execute for everyone, but because we haven’t asked for it, it’s ignored

Now that we’ve our mode, we can go ahead and be sure that we know what we’re doing and what permissions to our newly created files people will have.

It’s worth mentioning that 0777 & ~process.umask() for folders and 0666 & ~process.umask() for files are exactly what your system would do on its own if you would leave those parameters.

If you got interested (remember, JavaScript is not the only thing worth knowing!), you should definitely dive more into studying the basics of IT science.